header-en

ENIC UKRAINE
National Information Centre
of Academic Mobility

Путь на сайте

KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

Approaches to knowledge assessment in the system of general secondary education of Ukraine are based on the Criteria for Assessing Knowledge of Pupils in the System of General Secondary Education approved by Order No 329 of the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine, dated April 13, 2011.

According to the applicable legislation of Ukraine, the academic results showed by pupils in subjects of the invariable component of the curriculum of an educational institution are subject to mandatory assessment.

Since 2000, Ukrainian schools have been measuring the knowledge of their pupils on a 12-point scale introduced by Order No 428/48 of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, dated September 4, 2000 and titled “On the Introduction of a 12-point Scale for Assessing Academic Achievements of Students in the System of General Secondary Education”.

Teachers measure the knowledge, abilities, and skills of the first-year pupils verbally in an informal manner. But starting from the next year and on, such assessment is made on a 12-point scale, with marks ranging from 1 to 12 awarded.

Academic achievements of children with special educational needs are assessed in accordance with the requirements of applicable legislation of Ukraine.

The object of assessment in the system of general secondary education is the result of the day-by-day study efforts of pupils in class and at home.

The assessment is made upon the results of the following test types:

  • verbal (individual, in-group, and head-on quizzes);
  • written (independent work and tests);
  • graphic (work with diagrams, graphs, charts, outline maps); and
  • practical (various experiments and learning projects, work with bio material, and handicraft).

The assessment system has 4 (four) academic achievement measurement tiers:

  • first tier – the lowest (1-3 points). The pupil’s answer is fragmentary, evincing only introductory ideas of the subject;
  • second tier – medium (4-6 points). The pupil can repeat the basic studied material, is able to complete tasks following a model, and has elementary learning skills;
  • third tier — sufficient (7-9 points). The pupil knows the essential features of notions, phenomena, and relations among them, is able to explain basic regularities and applies the acquired knowledge independently in standard situations, and has developed such mental capacities as analysis, abstraction, and generalization. The pupil’s answer is correct, logical, and well-reasoned, although the pupil is lacking in his/her own judgments;
  • fourth tier – high (10-12 points). The pupil has profound, strong, and systemic knowledge; the pupil is capable of applying it to creative tasks, his/her academic activities are marked with the ability to independently evaluate various situations, phenomena, and facts, formulate and defend his/her own position.

Each consecutive tier of requirements includes the requirements of the previous one and adds new ones.

If the academic achievements of a pupil fail to meet any of the said assessment tiers, the mark of “failed” is given in this case.

When measuring the academic achievements of pupils, the following aspects are taken into consideration:

  • evaluation of his/her answer: correct, logical, substantiated, integrative;
  • knowledge quality;
  • development of general and subject-specific abilities and skills;
  • command of such mental operations as analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification, generalization, conclusion, etc.;
  • ability to identify problems and resolve them, ability to formulate hypotheses; and
  • independence of evaluative judgments.

On the consent of local education authorities, educational institutions may use other academic achievement assessment systems in their practice. However, the marks awarded upon the results of a semester, year, and the state final examination have to be converted into points. Senior schools hold examinations in three subjects:

  • Ukrainian language (the retelling is compulsory);
  • History of Ukraine (compulsory for pupils of the universal study profile) or major subject (for pupils studying in specialization classes);
  • Any subject from the invariable at the pupil’s choice.

After finishing their schooling for a complete general secondary education, graduates are subjected to an external independent knowledge assessment in the form or a written test in one or several optional subjects required for enrollment in an institution of higher learning. The results of the external independent knowledge assessment are regarded as results of the entrance examinations of the institution of higher learning. The external independent knowledge assessment is administered by the Ukrainian Knowledge Quality Assessment Center in cooperation with local education authorities, oblast institutions of post-graduate pedagogical studies, and educational institutions. In the competition for enrollment in an institution of higher learning, the average score of the certificate of complete general secondary education is also taken into account.

The development chronology of the knowledge assessment system in Ukraine is as follows:

In 1935, five verbal marks are introduced in Soviet schools: “very bad,” “bad,” “acceptable” “good,” and “very good.”
Starting from 1945, academic achievements of pupils in Soviet Ukraine are measured on a 5-point scale — "5", "4", "3", "2", and "1".
In 1993, the knowledge assessment scale was reduced to four points — "5", "4", "З", and "2."
Since 2000, schools in Ukraine have been using a 12-point knowledge assessment scale.

knowledge assessment scale Marks
4-point 2- 2 2+ 3- 3 3+ 4- 4 4+ 5- 5 5+
12-point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

COMPLETE SECONDARY EDUCATION

The senior school (10th-11th years) is the final stage in acquiring a complete general secondary education, which forms a holistic world view. Senior school graduates have developed learning and communication skills, the ability to get information from various sources and process it on their own, and the ability to apply the acquired knowledge in everyday life.

Duration. The schooling in the senior school takes 2 years. A complete secondary education may be acquired in general and specialized secondary schools, boarding schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, colleges, and other institutions of general secondary education of the ІІІ grade. A complete secondary education may also be obtained in a vocational educational institution, or institution of higher learning of the I-II accreditation levels.

Senior schools provide primarily a specialized education. The specialization of a pupil is determined on the basis of his or her preferred areas of study, available personnel and resources of the school, as well as the social-cultural and production environment and further educational prospects available for school graduates. The specialization-oriented study of a number of subjects ensures a proper level of training for school graduates sufficient for the enrollment in institutions of higher learning. Depending on the operating conditions of a specific general educational institution, the specialization-oriented teaching may be implemented on an institution-wide scale and within individual classes or pupil groups alike.

The educational content and study requirements in the senior school are divided into three levels:

  • mandatory study results, which are determined by the state basic and complete secondary educational standard;
  • specialization level, whose content is determined in the curricula approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine;
  • academic level, whose curricula focus the areas of study related to the specialization-oriented subjects (for example, physics in the chemistry-biology specialization area).

Pupils who are yet to make up their mind as regards their future specialization receive general (comprehensive) training.

Knowledge assessment. Knowledge in the senior school is measured on a 12-point scale.

The annual study load in a senior school is determined by the basic curriculum, standard curricula, working curricula of general educational institutions and so on. The basic curriculum of institutions of general education of the II-III accreditation levels is divided into invariable and variable components.

Compliance of the educational level of pupils with the educational quality standards is established through state final examinations. The content, forms, procedure, and schedule of such annual examinations are determined on an annual basis and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine.

Graduation. Pupils who have finished the 11th year of study (senior school) and acquired a complete general secondary education are school graduates. As a rule, school graduates are in the age of 16-17 years.

Pupils who have finished the 11th year of study and passed the final state examinations receive a certificate of complete general secondary education and supplement to it specifying the scores earned for educational achievements. For excellent academic achievements, graduates are awarded certificates of basic general secondary education with distinction.

Graduates who have high academic results are awarded the gold medal “For High Academic Achievements” or the silver medal “For Academic Achievements” and receive а certificate of complete general secondary education with distinction. This certificate comes with a supplement specifying the scores earned for educational achievements. Graduates of the 11th grade who fail the examination in at least one subject receive school report cards in which the mark of “failed” is placed against each such subject. Secondary school graduates are required to pass the independent external knowledge assessment test in the subjects required for the enrollment in a chosen institution of higher learning. This higher educational institution may change the list of such subjects following its enrollment requirements.

School graduates with a complete general secondary education have the right to apply for enrollment in any institution of higher learning.

ELEMENTARY SECONDARY EDUCATION

Elementary secondary education is the initial stage in the child’s intellectual, physical, and social development. In the elementary school, children acquire their first life experience – the ability to study and behave in specific social and natural environments.

Duration. In Ukraine, elementary schooling takes four years. Children who have reached the age of six by September 1 and have no contraindications against systematic study according to the results of medical and psychological examinations are eligible for elementary school.

Educational institutions. Children acquire an elementary education in general educational institutions of the 1st accreditation level that operate independently or as part of general educational institutions of the 1st-2nd  and 1st-3rd accreditation levels.

Prior to the secondary school, every child is required to acquire a basic preschool education in a pre-school educational institution, courses organized within a school, or in the family.

Knowledge assessment. Teachers measure the knowledge of the first-year pupils verbally in an informal manner. But starting from the next year and on, their knowledge will be measured on a 12-point scale, with marks ranging from 1 to 12 awarded.

In view of the applicable sanitary and hygienic regulations, a class hour in an elementary school takes 35 minutes in the first year, and 40 minutes in the second through four years. An elementary school operates five days a week. However, specialized schools with intensive foreign language classes for younger children may have a 6-day academic week.

The general principles of elementary education are reflected in the basic curriculum of elementary education.

Curriculum. Proceeding from the basic curriculum, the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine develops standard curricula for general educational institutions. In the standard curricula, the content of the fields of study is presented in the form of school subjects and courses of the invariable component. Based on the standard curricula, educational institutions prepare working curricula on an annual basis in which they concretize the variable component of elementary education, taking into account the organizational specifics of the academic process.

Graduation. The fourth year is the graduation year in the elementary school. It ends in state examinations to measure the educational achievements of the graduates, most often in the Ukrainian language or language of study, reading and mathematics. The content, forms, procedure, and schedule of such annual examinations are determined on an annual basis and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine.

The educational results of the elementary school are:

  • full-fledged verbal, reading, computational skills and physical abilities;
  • general view of the real world;
  • sufficiently developed thinking, imagination, memory, and sensor abilities;
  • creative ability;
  • attitude to work, art, and health as values; and
  • ability to perform simple creative tasks.

BASIC SECONDARY EDUCATION

The basic school (5-9 grades) provides a basic general secondary education, which is the foundation of secondary education for all school children, developing them to a point where they are ready to choose a form of further education and specialization. At this stage, general educational institutions create for pupils conditions for self-paced and more in-depth study of specific subjects important for the targeted higher educational institution (lyceum, gymnasium, vocational-technical school, educational institution of the І—II accreditation levels, etc.).

Duration. Schooling in the basic school takes 5 years. The right to provide a basic general secondary education is granted to general educational institutions of the 2nd accreditation level.

The study conditions in the basic school, as a rule, differ from those in the elementary school, i.e., new subjects are introduced, the teacher and class collectives change, as well as the study regime.

Knowledge assessment. The knowledge of pupils is measured on a 12-point scale, with marks ranging from 1 to 12 awarded.

The educational content of the basic school is the same for all pupils. The personal approach is implemented through individual study methods, depending on the learning proclivity of a child, as well as extracurricular classes.

Academic hours in the basic school are distributed among fields of study and their content is determined in the basic curriculum approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, standard curricula developed by the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine, working curricula of general educational institutions, and so on.

Basic curriculum. The basic curriculum of the basic school has two components: invariable and variable.

General educational institutions with teaching in national minority languages, specialized schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, and colleges are allowed to increase the study load limit for the account of the overall study limit to a level not exceeding the sanitary and hygienic standards.

The educational level of graduates of general educational institutions of the ІІ accreditation level is controlled through state final examinations. The content, forms, procedure, and schedule of such annual examinations are determined on an annual basis and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine.

Graduate. A graduate of a basic school (9-year pupils) receives a certificate of basic general secondary education  and supplement to it specifying the scores earned for educational achievements. For excellent academic achievements, graduates are awarded certificates of a basic general secondary education with distinction.

Graduates who fail an examination in at least one subject receive school report cards. Pupils who fail to obtain an education-confirming document may continue studying externally.

Graduates of specialized schools (boarding schools) for children requiring physical and/or mental development correction receive certificates of completion of a specialized school (boarding school).

A certificate of a basic general secondary education entitles its holder to enrollment in a 3rd accreditation level school, vocational-technical educational institution, or institution of higher learning of the I-II accreditation levels.

ENIC-NARIC NETWORK

The ENIC-NARIC Network is a network of national information centers of academic recognition and mobility (ENIC Network). It was established in 1994 by the Council of Europe and UNESCO for creating and adopting a single European diploma and qualification recognition policy and practice.

The ENIC Network works in close cooperation with the network of national recognition information centers of the European Union (NARIC Network) whose operation is supported by the European Commission in the person of the Director General for Education and Culture.

Additional information is available on the indicated website.

Structure and Tasks
The ENIC information network consists of national information centers of the countries-signatories of the European Cultural Convention and countries within the European region of UNESCO. An ENIC center is an organization created by the national government of each country.

Such centers in different countries may differ in terms of size or competence, but they are required to provide information regarding the following issues:

  • recognition of foreign diplomas, academic degrees, and qualifications;
  • the education system in the country and other countries;
  • and the possibility to obtain an education abroad, as well as other practical issues regarding mobility and recognition.

 The potential clients of ENIC-NARIC are:

  • students and their parents;
  • employers;
  • educational institutions;
  • representatives of ministries dealing with higher education issues;
  • and other concerned persons and organizations.

Students contemplating studying abroad are strongly advised to find the necessary information before they make their final decision to make sure that the diploma/qualification they will obtain will be recognized in their home country.

The ENIC Network representatives convene annually for a general meeting to discuss academic recognition and mobility issues. In the periods between such meetings, working groups work on specific problems. The ENIC Network plays an important role in the exchange of education-related information among national centers, which helps in resolving issues associated with the recognition of education-confirming documents. 
The ENIC Network board convenes 2-3 times a year.

Activities of Working Groups
Current policy and information activity issues within the ENIC Network are addressed by the working groups, which later present their positions on the issues before annual meetings of the Network. The subjects falling within the purview of the working groups include:

  • recognition problems in the Bologna Process;
  • translational education;
  • Diploma Supplement;
  • evaluation criteria and procedures for foreign qualifications and periods of studing;
  • qualifications for international access to education, Europe-USA;
  • mutual recognition of qualifications; and
  • electronic recognition information.

More Articles...

  1. Main