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Every student has the right to a fair, objective, independent, non-discriminatory and transparent assessment of learning outcomes.

The main types of assessment of learning outcomes of students are formative, current, final (thematic, semester, annual) assessment, state final attestation, and external independent evaluation.

Since 2000, the Ukrainian schools have been using a 12-point grading system. The assessment criteria for general secondary education was approved by Order No 329 of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, dated April 13, 2011.

Institutions can also design and use their own grading scales, provided they have the formula to convert the institutional grades into the 12-point system, defined by legislation.

Learning outcomes in primary school are usually assessed verbally. In grades one and two verbal assessment is used for students' achievements. In grades three and four, at the choice of an educational institution, students can receive verbal or level assessments, which can be expressed both orally and in writing. The level assessment is a gradual transition from verbal assessment in primary school to point-based assessment in basic secondary school.

The verbal evaluation is expressed in the following words: "significant success", "demonstrate noticeable progress", "achieve results with the help of adults", "need attention and help", the level assessment is used as follows: "initial", "average", "sufficient" and "high".

Assessment of learning outcomes of students with special educational needs is carried out in accordance with the general evaluation criteria and individual study plan.

The object of assessment in the system of general secondary education is day-by-day study activities of pupils in class and at home.

The following test types are used for the assessment:

  • verbal (individual, in-group, quizzes);
  • written (independent work and tests);
  • graphic (work with diagrams, graphs, charts, outline maps);
  • practical (various experiments and learning projects, work with biological objects, and crafts).

The assessment system has 4 (four) academic achievement levels:

  • first level – initial (1-3 points). An answer is fragmentary, showing introductory knowledge of a subject.
  • second level – average (4-6 points). A pupil can repeat the basic material, is able to complete tasks following a model, and has elementary learning skills.
  • third level — sufficient (7-9 points). A pupil knows the essential features of notions, phenomena, and relations among them, can explain basic regularities and applies the acquired knowledge independently in standard situations, and has developed such mental capacities as analysis, abstraction, and generalization. The pupil’s answer is correct, logical, and well-reasoned, although the pupil is lacking his/her own judgments.
  • fourth level – high (10-12 points). A pupil has profound, strong, and systemic knowledge, can apply it to creative tasks, able to independently evaluate various situations, phenomena, and facts, formulate and reason his/her own opinion.

If academic achievements of a pupil fail to meet any of the mentioned assessment levels, the mark “unattested (fail)” is given in this case.

When assessing the academic achievements of pupils, the following aspects are taken into consideration:

  • whether the answer is correct, logical and comprehensive;
  • knowledge quality;
  • development of general and subject-specific abilities and skills;
  • command of such mental skills as analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification,
  • generalization, conclusion, etc.;
  • ability to identify problems and resolve them, ability to formulate hypotheses and independent judgments.

The State Final Attestation exams are taken after completion of each level of secondary education: primary (in the 4th grade), basic secondary (in the 9th grade) or complete general secondary education (in the 11th) grade).

Annual assessment for every year of every level is done based on the 12-point assessment system defined by legislation, and the results are reflected in the Certificate of Achievements, which is issued to every student each year.

The chronology of the assessment system development in Ukraine

In 1935, five verbal marks are introduced in the Soviet schools: “very bad,” “bad,” “acceptable” “good,” and “very good.”

Starting from 1945, achievements of pupils in the Soviet Ukraine are assessed using a 5-point scale: "5" (high), "4", "3", "2", and "1".

In 1993, the knowledge assessment scale was reduced to four points: "5" (high), "4", "З", and "2".

Since 2000, schools in Ukraine have been using a 12-point assessment scale (where 12 is the highest).

The ratio of the 4-point and 12-point grading scales would be following

Assessment scale Grade
4-point 2- 2 2+ 3- 3 3+ 4- 4 4+ 5- 5 5+
12-point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

This information has been produced with the financial assistance of the Council of Europe. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the Council of Europe.